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Vaccine Failures Library: Selected References

Wednesday, September 3rd, 2008

Economic interests require strong confidence in vaccination since getting toxic jabs, as the British call them, is a hugely successful business which is justified only if vaccines are safe and work as advertised to prevent disease.

The belief system which most of us are raised with make such conclusions obvious and difficult to question. The reality, however, is grimly distinct from that comfortable set of assumptions.
Presented below is a very partial compendium of litaerature substantiating the conclusion that putting vaccines, whether inhaled or injected, into your body or that of a child is a grave matter which should be seriously considered before any such act is undertaken.

In fact, to my astonishment, since I started out believing that vaccines were both safe and effective, I now have concluded on the basis of information like that below that all vaccinations are so questionable and unnecessary as to prohibit their use in any circumstances I can think of.

Since there is a great deal of pro vaccine information circulating, I feel it is the responsibility of the Natural Solutions Foundation to make information like this available so that consumers, parents, physicians, nurses and other health-related decision makers can come to reasonable decisions.
This information may be freely circulated and copied provided that full citations are included.

My special thanks to http://www.whale.to/vaccines/failures.html.

Yours in health and freedom,
Dr. Rima
Rima E. Laibow, MD
Medical Director
Natural Solutions Foundation

Vaccine Failures: Having an antibody does not guarantee protection from infection.

NOTE: The medical journal, Vaccine, states, “It is known that, in many instances, antigen-specific antibody titers do not correlate with protection.” PMID: 11587808

NOTE: “The findings of efficacy studies have not demonstrated a direct correlation between antibody response and protection against pertussis disease. Antibody studies are useful to compare amount of response elicited by different vaccines under different conditions or in different groups. Thus, efficacy studies are required to measure clinical protection conferred by each pertussis vaccine. MMWR March 28, 1997/Vol.46/No. RR-7

Australia, July 28, 2007: Two of the five cases of bacterial meningitis were within the same family, the other three seem unrelated. Dr. Margot McLean, the Medical Officer of Health, reports that two of the children were completely immunized against meningococci while others ere partially vaccinated.

2007: Connecticut: State health experts are investigating an outbreak of chicken pox in Colchester. Sixty-five students at the Jack Jackter Elementary School got chicken pox last year. It was one of the largest outbreaks in the state. The chicken pox vaccine has a known 20-percent failure rate.

Oklahoma: February 20, 2006: Elgin ISD Experiencing Chicken Pox Outbreak. More than 40 kids were out of school today in Elgin after an outbreak of chicken pox. School officials at Elgin Independent School District say on Friday they had 61 cases of chicken pox and strangely, school records show most of the kids have already been immunized.

Wisconsin: Jan. 20, 2006: Health officials are looking into an outbreak of chickenpox in the Gale-Ettrick-Trempealeau School District in which all except two of the 44 affected children had been vaccinated against the illness.

Alabama: Dec. 15, 2005: Chickenpox outbreak zeroes in on school. Hazel Green kids discover vaccine is no guarantee.

Multistate Outbreak of Mumps — United States, January 1–May 2, 2006: In Iowa, preliminary vaccination data were reported through May 3, 2006. Among 1,192 patients, 94% were vaccinated, 141 (12%) had received 1 dose of MMR vaccine, and 607 (51%) had received 2 doses. The vaccination status of 375 (31%) patients, the majority of whom were adults who did not have vaccination records, was unknown.

Mumps outbreak, 2006: Report from Julie Gerberding: “In addition, although this is a very good vaccine, it is not perfect. About 10 percent of people who get both doses of the vaccine still remain [susceptible] to mumps. So if you are in a community of 10,000 people and 10 percent of the people who got both doses of the vaccine are susceptible, once you get a little outbreak going in that community, that means that up to 1,000 people in the community would actually come down with mumps even though they were properly immunized with what we know is a very good vaccine.”

Oregon: October 2001. Chickenpox Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population. A chickenpox outbreak occurred in a school in which 97% of students without a prior history of chickenpox were vaccinated. Students vaccinated >5 years before the outbreak were at risk for breakthrough disease. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 3 March 2004, pp. 455-459

1995: Between October 3 and November 23, 1990, clinical mumps developed in 54 students; 53 had been vaccinated. Cheek et al. “Mumps outbreak in a highly vaccinated school population”. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; 149: 774-778

1991 Tennessee: mumps outbreak, 99.6 percent of schoolchildren in Maury County, Tennessee met vaccination requirements for mumps.

1987: An outbreak of measles in secondary school with more than 99 percent vaccination rate and more than 95 percent of students have measles antibody (vaccine immunity.) Gustafson et al. “Measles outbreak in a fully immunized secondary-school population”, NEJM; 3216: 771-774

1987: Nknowane BM et al. Measles outbreak in a vaccinated (70%) school population: epidemiology, chains of transmission and the role of vaccine failure”: Am J Pub Health;77:434-438.1987

1972: Twenty-four cases of measles occurred in a school in which 89% of children were immunized or had had natural disease; 19 of these cases were vaccine failures. Cherry JD et al. “Urban measles in the vaccine era: a clinical, epidemiologic, and serologic study”. J Pediatrics; 81(2): 217- 230

Pertussis Infection in Fully Vaccinated Children in Day-Care Centers, Israel. (REF: Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 6, No. 5; Sep-Oct 2000)

Pertussis in the Highly Vaccinated Population, The Netherlands (REF: Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 6, No. 4 Jul-Aug 2000)

Pertussis in North-West Western Australia in 1999; All vaccinated. (REF: Communicable Diseases Intelligence 2000 Vol 24 No 12)

Measles epidemic occurred in Hungary during 1988-1989 despite over 93% of people born during 1970-1973 and over 98% born since 1973 had been vaccinated. Agocs et al.”The 1988-1999 measles epidemic in Hungary: assessment of vaccine failure”. International J Epidemiology; 21(5): 1007- 1013. 1992.

Mumps outbreak occurred in a group of vaccinated children aged 3-4 years in San Sebastian (Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain) in 2000

March 2006 Iowa mumps epidemic puzzles officials ‘Of the 245 patients this year, at least 66 percent had had the recommended two-shot vaccination, while 14 percent had received one dose, the Public Health Department said.

2002 Outbreak of Varicella at a Day-Care Center despite Vaccination
Quian JW.An outbreak of varicella despite vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 3;348(14):1405-7;
author reply 1405-7. No abstract available. PMID: 12678027 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE

Wack RP. An outbreak of varicella despite vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 3;348(14):1405-7; author reply 1405-7. No abstract available. PMID: 12678025 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE

Giusti RJ.An outbreak of varicella despite vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2003 Apr 3;348(14):1405-7; author reply 1405-7. No abstract available. PMID: 12672872 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE

Manghani DK, et al. Pleomorphism of fine structure of rabies virus in human and experimental brain. J Neurol Sci. 1986 Sep;75(2):181-93. PMID: 3760910; UI: 87010723.
Identification of the Negri bodies in the brain of an 8-year-old boy who died 8 days after a paralytic illness and 20 days after a dog bite, and who had received 9 injections of Semple’s anti-rabies vaccine, provided evidence that he died of acute rabies encephalitis and not of post-vaccinal allergic encephalomyelitis. The Negri bodies in the human subject and those seen in the inoculated mouse differed in their morphological structure: the former consisted of a matrix of very fine granular material bearing larger granules or strands of higher electron-density resembling nucleic acids and representing products of host cell-virus interaction; and the latter showed better defined areas of granular matrix containing tubular, bullet-shaped and elongated forms of viral structures, and nucleocapsids or capsule-deficient cores, representing the virions, emerging from them. Fine structural examination of the patient’s brain and of the inoculated mouse has provided evidence of the pleomorphism of the Negri bodies and the various stages of formation of viral material and virions in them, the animal alone showing the mature virions of rabies, and proving the infectivity of the Negri bodies of the human brain.

“Reemergence of invasive haemophilus influenzae type b disease in a well-vaccinated population on remote Alaska” (Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 179, no. 1, January 1999, pp. 101-106, reported via Vaccine Weekly, NewsEdge Corporation news release, February 12, 1999):

In 1996, after administration of Hib conjugate vaccine (DTP whole-cell vaccine + Hib), cases ofinvasive Hib disease, as well as “silent” Hib infections, increased.

“High incidence of breakthrough varicella observed in healthy Japanese children immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka strain),” Acta Paediatrica Japonica, vol. 39, no. 6, December 1997, pp. 663-8: the rate of varicella [chicken pox] occurrence among vaccinees was found to be much higher than rates reported previously by other authors. “Varicella vaccine seems to be effective in modifying the symptoms of varicella, but not potent enough in protecting from VZV infection.”

“The characteristics of poliovirus strains circulating in Ukraine in 1982-1994″ (Mikrobiol[ogie] Z. vol. 60, no. 2, March-April 1998, pp. 44-49 [article in Russian]): “The long-term use of the live poliomyelitis vaccine has not stopped circulation of virulent polioviruses.”

“Is smallpox history?” (The Lancet, vol. 353, no. 9164, May 8, 1999): “A pilgrim returned home to Yugoslavia from Mecca in February, 1972, with a fever… In the 4 weeks since the pilgrim first had his fever, 150 people were infected across the country. It took 4 weeks before doctors, nurses, and health authorities knew they were dealing with smallpox… 175 people contracted smallpox [thereafter] and 35 died… these events occurred in a well-vaccinated population.”

“Five cases of measles secondary vaccine failure with confirmed seroconversion after live measles vaccination” (Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Disease vol. 29, no. 2, 1997, pp.187-90): Two, five, seven and twelve years after vaccination with further attenuated live measles vaccine, three of five patients experienced modified measles infection, and the remaining two had typical measles. “This may be the first SVF case report that confirms the existence of completely waning immunity in recipients of the further attenuated live measles vaccines.”

“H[epatitis] B V[irus] prevalence is unchanged by hepatitis B [vaccine],” report by Michael Belkin, statistician, based on nationwide sampling of the prevalence of hepatitis B by the Centers for Disease Control, 1988, to 1994, for comparison with figures from 1976 to 1980 [American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 14, 1999]: “There was an age-adjusted prevalence of 5.5% in the first study and 4.9% in the second; these differences are not statistically significant. The authors concluded that the widespread use of HBV vaccine in the 1980s has not had a major impact on the overall prevalence of this infection (communication posted on the Vaccine Information and Awareness (VIA) listserv [via@access1.net], March 11, 1999,.
The efficacy of common vaccines may be greatly exaggerated. In a 1998 study, it was stated that “investigator bias probably has overestimated the efficacy of most vaccines.” Clinicians’ compliance levels in monitoring illness in vaccine recipients varied widely in trial protocols. “Less compliant investigators were far more likely to report data making vaccines appear more effective against mild or moderate disease. Our data suggest that observer compliance (observer bias) can significantly inflate calculated vaccine efficacy…it is likely that all recently completed efficacy trials have been affected by this type of observer bias and all vaccines have considerably less efficacy against mild disease than published data suggest” (Pediatrics, vol. 102, no. 4, part 1, October 1998, pp. 909-912, reported as news release, “Clinical Trials; Vaccine Efficacy Overestimated…,” posted December 2 to Vaccine Information and Awareness electronic mail discussion list [via@access1.net], 9:42 a.m.).
Laskey AL, Johnson TR, Dagartzikas MI, Tobias JD. Endocarditis Attributable to Group A beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus After Uncomplicated Varicella in a Vaccinated Child.
Pediatrics. 2000 Sep;106(3):E40. [Record as supplied by publisher] PMID: 10969124

Roberts RJ, et al. Reasons for non-uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella catch up immunisation in a measles epidemic and side effects of the vaccine. BMJ. 1995 Jun 24;310(6995):1629-32. PMID: 7795447; UI: 95315783.
Many of the objections raised by parents could be overcome by emphasising that primary immunisation does not necessarily confer immunity and that diagnosis of measles is unreliable.
The Lancet, vol. 353, January 9, 1999, pp. 98-102—“Effect of subclinical infection on maintaining immunity against measles in vaccinated children in West Africa” : Subclinical measles occurred in 45 percent of vaccinated children exposed to natural measles. “new epidemics, albeit milder in form, may occur in vaccinated areas[, a fact] which should be recognised in campaigns to eradicate measles.” [Note: if sustained as chronic infections, subclinical measles infections can result in numerous other diseases.]

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop., vol. 28, no. 4, Oct-Dec 1995, pp. 339-43 “Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with a high vaccination coverage” : “The history of previous vaccination [in very early childhood] did not diminish thenumber of complications of the cases studied. The results of this work show changes in age distribution of measles leading to sizeable outbreaks among teenagers and young adults.”

Clin. Invest. Med., vol. 11, no. 4, August 1988, pp. 304-9: “Measles serodiagnosis during an outbreak in a vaccinated community” ( from a group of 30 measles-sufferers displaying IgM antibodies during the acute phase of illness, 17 had been vaccinated for measles. All 17 experienced measles again, showing IgM antibodies indicating acute infection. “A history of prior vaccination is not always associated with immunity nor with the presence of specific antibodies.”

Aaby P, et al. (1990) Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage. J Infect Dis. 1990 Nov;162(5):1043-8. PMID: 2230232; UI: 91037153.
Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=2230232&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b

Boulianne N, et al.(1991) [Major measles epidemic in the region of Quebec despite a 99% vaccine coverage]. Can J Public Health. 1991 May-Jun;82(3):189-90. French. PMID: 1884314; UI: 91356447.
The 1989 measles outbreak in the province of Quebec has been largely attributed to an incomplete vaccination coverage. In the Quebec City area (pop. 600,000) 1,363 confirmed cases of measles did occur. A case-control study conducted to evaluate risk factors for measles allowed us to estimate vaccination coverage. It was measured in classes where cases did occur during the outbreak. This population included 8,931 students aged 5 to 19 years old. The 563 cases and a random sample of two controls per case selected in the case’s class were kept for analysis. The vaccination coverage among cases was at least 84.5%. Vaccination coverage for the total population was 99.0%. Incomplete vaccination coverage is not a valid explanation for the Quebec City measles outbreak. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1884314&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b

Ceyhan M, et al. (1992) The evaluation of vaccination against measles at nine months of age (report of an epidemic). Turk J Pediatr. 1992 Jul-Sep;34(3):127-33. PMID: 1485379; UI: 93134677.
Sixteen measles cases were studied during an epidemic that broke out in Etimesgut district of Ankara. Eight of these children had never been vaccinated against measles while the remainder had been vaccinated at nine months of age. In the sera obtained during the course of the illness, anti-measles antibody was not detectable in six vaccinated children and in four unvaccinated children. Upon observing the siblings of the subjects, it was determined that one out of three who had not been vaccinated against measles and three out of seven who had been vaccinated at nine months of age contracted the disease within a month. However none of the siblings who had been vaccinated against measles at 15 months contracted the disease. In our cases, although vaccination at nine months of age could not prevent measles, it resulted in a milder form of the disease. It seems that measles vaccine administered to infants at around nine months of age does not prevent the occurrence of the disease in many children. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1485379&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b

Cherry JD, (1973) Feigin RD, Shackelford PG, Hinthorn DR, Schmidt RR. A clinical and serologic study of 103 children with measles vaccine failure. J Pediatr 1973 May;82(5):802-8
Cherry et al. (1972) described an epidemic in St Loius Cityand County during 1970 & 1971, during which 130 children were hospitalised and 6 died. The attack rate was much higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated children.

“In the measles epidemic of 1984-1985 in Aukland, New Zealand (Hardy et al. 1986) 35% of all measles cases were vaccinated, 9% were unsure and 67% were unvaccinated. However the largest number of cases were in children one year old or less, below the age at which they would be vaccinated.”–Scheibner.

Coetzee N, et al. (1994) The 1992 measles epidemic in Cape Town–a changing epidemiological pattern. S Afr Med J. 1994 Mar;84(3):145-9. PMID: 7740350; UI: 95258851
Over the last 6 years there has been a decline in the incidence of measles in Cape Town. However, during August 1992 an outbreak occurred, with cases reported at many schools in children presumably immunised. The objectives of this study were to characterise the epidemic in Cape Town and to determine possible reasons for the outbreak. The investigation consisted of two components–a description of the epidemic and an investigation of an outbreak at one primary school. Results indicate that during the last 4 months of the year, 757 cases were notified in Cape Town, compared with 144 in the first 8 months. The epidemic affected mainly white and coloured children over 5 years of age (P < 0.001). In contrast, during the period before the epidemic most cases occurred in black children and in those aged less than 1 year (P < 0.001). There was no significant increase in hospitalised cases. Investigation of the outbreak at one school revealed that the attack rate was 7.6% (25/329 children). Immunisation coverage (at least one dose of any measles vaccine) was 91% and vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 79% (95% CI 55-90); it was highest for monovalent measles (100%) and lowest for measles-mumps-rubella (74%). The epidemiology of measles in Cape Town has thus changed as evinced in this epidemic, with an increase in the number of cases occurring in older, previously vaccinated children. The possible reasons for this include both primary and secondary vaccine failure. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=7740350&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Currier RW 2d, et al. (1972) Measles in previously vaccinated children. Evaluation of an outbreak. Am J Dis Child. 1972 Dec;124(6):854-7. No abstract available.PMID: 4639221; UI: 73055262. Davis RM, et al.(1987) A persistent outbreak of measles despite appropriate prevention and control measures. Am J Epidemiol. 1987 Sep;126(3):438-49. PMID: 3618578; UI: 87295970. From January 4 to May 13, 1985, an outbreak of 137 cases of measles occurred in Montana and persisted for 12 generations of spread. A total of 114 cases occurred on the Blackfeet Indian reservation in northwest Montana. Of the 137 cases, 82 (59.9%) were in school-aged children (aged 5-19 years). Of the 114 cases on the reservation, 108 (94.7%) were classified as programmatically nonpreventable. A total of 64 (82.1%) of the 78 patients on the reservation who were born after 1956 and were above the recommended age at vaccination had a history of adequate measles vaccination. Additionally, an audit of immunization records at the schools in Browning, Montana, where most of the cases occurred, showed that 98.7% of students were appropriately vaccinated. A retrospective cohort study in the Browning schools failed to identify age at vaccination or time since vaccination as significant risk factors for vaccine failure. Overall vaccine efficacy was 96.9% (95% confidence interval =89.5-98.2%). None of 80 Browning students who were vaccinated at less than 12 months of age and revaccinated at 15 months of age or older became infected. A case-control study showed a significant association between attendance at Browning basketball games and infection early in the outbreak. This outbreak suggests that measles transmission may persist in some settings despite appropriate implementation of the current measles elimination strategy. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=3618578&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Edmonson MB, et al.(1990) Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population. JAMA. 1990 May 9;263(18):2467-71. PMID: 2278542; UI: 90230400. A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study “vaccine-modified” mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=2278542&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Gustafson TL, (1987) Lievens AW, Brunell PA, Moellenberg RG, Buttery CM, Sehulster LM. Measles outbreak in a fully immunized secondary-school population. N Engl J Med 1987 Mar 26;316(13):771-4 An outbreak of measles occurred among adolescents in Corpus Christi, Texas, in the spring of 1985, even though vaccination requirements for school attendance had been thoroughly enforced. Serum samples from 1806 students at two secondary schools were obtained eight days after the onset of the first case. Only 4.1 percent of these students (74 of 1806) lacked detectable antibody to measles according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and more than 99 percent had records of vaccination with live measles vaccine. Stratified analysis showed that the number of doses of vaccine received was the most important predictor of antibody response. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of seronegative rates were 0 to 3.3 percent for students who had received two prior doses of vaccine, as compared with 3.6 to 6.8 percent for students who had received only a single dose. After the survey, none of the 1732 seropositive students contracted measles. Fourteen of 74 seronegative students, all of whom had been vaccinated, contracted measles. In addition, three seronegative students seroconverted without experiencing any symptoms. We conclude that outbreaks of measles can occur in secondary schools, even when more than 99 percent of the students have been vaccinated and more than 95 percent are immune. Rauth and Schmidt (1965). The authors followed 386 children who had received 3 doses of killed measles virus vaccine in 1961. Of these 386, 125 had been exposed to measles and 54 of them developed the disease. Barratta et al. (1970) investigated an outbreak of measles in Florida from Dec 1968-1969 and found there was little difference in the incidence of measles in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Herceg A, et al. An outbreak of measles in a highly immunised population: immunisation status and vaccine efficacy. Aust J Public Health. 1994 Sep;18(3):249-52. PMID: 7841251; UI: 95143332. All of the immunised cases had received measles-mumps vaccine. There was no increased risk of measles infection in those who had been immunised at under 15 months of age compared with those immunised at 15 months or older, or in those who could not provide a date of immunisation compared with those who could. None of the children who had received two doses of vaccine caught measles. Hersh BS, et al. 1991 A measles outbreak at a college with a prematriculation immunization requirement. Am J Public Health. 1991 Mar;81(3):360-4. PMID: 1994745; UI: 91135797. BACKGROUND. In early 1988 an outbreak of 84 measles cases occurred at a college in Colorado in which over 98 percent of students had documentation of adequate measles immunity (physician diagnosed measles, receipt of live measles vaccine on or after the first birthday, or serologic evidence of immunity) due to an immunization requirement in effect since 1986. METHODS. To examine potential risk factors for measles vaccine failure, we conducted a retrospective cohort study among students living in campus dormitories using student health service vaccination records. RESULTS. Overall, 70 (83 percent) cases had been vaccinated at greater than or equal to 12 months of age. Students living in campus dormitories were at increased risk for measles compared to students living off-campus (RR = 3.0, 95% CI = 2.0, 4.7). Students vaccinated at 12-14 months of age were at increased risk compared to those vaccinated at greater than or equal to 15 months (RR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.7, 5.7). Time since vaccination was not a risk factor for vaccine failure. Measles vaccine effectiveness was calculated to be 94% (95% CI = 86, 98) for vaccination at greater than or equal to 15 months. CONCLUSIONS. As in secondary schools, measles outbreaks can occur among highly vaccinated college populations. Implementation of recent recommendations to require two doses of measles vaccinefor college entrants should help reduce measles outbreaks in college populations. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1994745&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Hull HF, et al. (1985) Risk factors for measles vaccine failure among immunized students. Pediatrics. 1985 Oct;76(4):518-23. PMID: 4047794; UI: 86015842. An outbreak of measles occurred in a municipal school system which had reported 98% of students immunized against measles. A case-control study was conducted to determine reasons for vaccine failure. Vaccine failure was associated with immunizations that could not be documented in the provider’s records. Among children with provider-documented immunization, vaccine failure was associated with vaccination at 12 to 14 months of age with an odds ratio of 4.73. Among children vaccinated at 15 months or older, vaccine failure was not associated with time elapsed since vaccination. Studies should be conducted to determine whether unreliable immunization records are a more widespread problem. Further consideration should be given to routine revaccination of children previously vaccinated at 12 to 14 months of age. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=4047794&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Judelsohn RG, et al. (1980) School-based measles outbreaks: correlation of age at immunization with risk of disease. Am J Public Health. 1980 Nov;70(11):1162-5. PMID: 7425187; UI: 81037187. During the Spring of 1978, students with a history of previous measles vaccination accounted for over three-forths of 203 cases of measles in a metropolitan county. Seventy cases occurred in two schools where 99% of the students were vaccinated. We analyzed countywide data to determine past patterns of measles vaccination, including outbreak control and vaccination update clinics. We also examined records of children from the two schools to assess the relationship between disease incidence and age at vaccination. When susceptibility was determined by trained health workers rather than by parents, fewer doses of measles vaccine were estimated to be needed. The majority of cases occurred among children 5 to 9 years old. Attack rates were higher for children vaccinated at 12 months of age or younger than for those vaccinated at 13 months of age or older. There were no significant differences in attack rates among children vaccinated at 13 months of age or older. These findings support recommendations for delaying routine measles vaccination until after 12 months of age and suggest that, during outbreaks, all children vaccinated prior to 13 months of age be revaccinated. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=7425187&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Kawamoto A, et al. (1995) Two independent outbreaks of measles in partially vaccinated junior high schools in Tottori, Japan. Arch Virol. 1995;140(2):349-54. PMID: 7710360; UI: 95225752. We analyzed retrospectively a relative risk of measles attacks in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated students using two independent outbreaks in Japan. The first involved 33/328 (10%) students where 64% students and 30% measles cases had been vaccinated. The second involved 27/241 (11%) students where 81% students and 48% measles cases had been vaccinated. The attack rates of vaccinated vs. unvaccinated students were significantly low (p < 0.001), but they accounted 25% in both episodes. The statistically significant clinical features among vaccinated and unvaccinated cases included the average duration of fever, 5.16 +/- 1.71 vs. 6.67 +/- 2.19 days (p = 0.01) and the incidence of complications, 0 vs. 25%, respectively. These results suggested that the measles in vaccinated cases were mostly due to secondary failures. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=7710360&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Krause PJ, et al (1979) . Epidemic measles in young adults. Clinical, epidemiologic, and serologic studies. Ann Intern Med. 1979 Jun;90(6):873-6. PMID: 443682; UI: 79185850. An outbreak of measles at the University of California at Los Angeles provided the opportunity to study clinical, epidemiologic, and serologic characteristics of the disease in young adults in the present vaccine era. Of the 34 cases studied, 18 occurred in persons who thought they were immune. Fifteen of 19 seronegative students vaccinated during the epidemic responded with a secondary (IgG) antibody response. Antibody prevalence studies indicated that 91% of the student population had measles antibody at the onset of the outbreak, and history relating to measles correlated poorly with antibody prevalence. Of 212 adults vaccinated, 58% complained of one or more symptoms. Seventeen percent were confined to bed, and in three women vaccine-associated illness was notably severe. That measles will continue to be a problem in adults with our present national approach to immunization is predicted. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=443682&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Landrigan PJ (1973) , Griesbach PH. IMJ Ill Med J 1973 Apr;141(4):367-72. Measles in previously vaccinated children in Illinois. PMID: 4148345, UI: 74041503 Leeb A. Measles vaccination failure–cause for concern? Aust Fam Physician. 1992 Mar;21(3):297-301, 304. PMID: 1605769; UI: 92296993. The author describes a propagated epidemic of measles virus infection on the north-west coast of Tasmania. Almost 20 per cent of children between the ages of 1 year and 15 years contracted the illness, 45 per cent of whom were previously vaccinated. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the incidence of infection and the vaccination status of the community and to investigate the apparent measles vaccine failure. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1605769&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Markvart K, et al. [Explosive occurrence of measles in a vaccinated population]. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 1977 Jan;26(1):15-24. Czech. No abstract available.PMID: 140009; UI: 77160099. Maulitz RM, et al. (1997) A measles outbreak in a New England community. Perspectives. Am J Dis Child. 1977 Jan;131(1):57-9. PMID: 835522; UI: 77108959. Between May 30 and June 29, 1974, 28 cases of measles occurred in schoolchildren in a residential New England community. The index patient probably contracted the disease on a school field trip 11 days before the onset of her illness. Of the other 27 cases, 15 had received live measles vaccine before age 1, and ten had no history of vaccination or disease. Four documented vaccine failures did occur in children vaccinated after age 1, but this was not an unusual number compared with the total number of vaccinees evaluated during the investigation. Control measures for susceptible persons including vaccination or modifying doses of immune serum globulin for exposure occurring more than 24 hours earlier. No additional cases of measles were reported for one month after the epidemic. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=835522&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Nkowane BM, et al (1987) . Measles outbreak in a vaccinated school population: epidemiology, chains of transmission and the role of vaccine failures. Am J Public Health. 1987 Apr;77(4):434-8. PMID: 3826461; UI: 87154064. An outbreak of measles occurred in a high school with a documented vaccination level of 98 per cent. Nineteen (70 per cent) of the cases were students who had histories of measles vaccination at 12 months of age or older and are therefore considered vaccine failures. Persons who were unimmunized or immunized at less than 12 months of age had substantially higher attack rates compared to those immunized on or after 12 months of age. Vaccine failures among apparently adequately vaccinated individuals were sources of infection for at least 48 per cent of the cases in the outbreak. There was no evidence to suggest that waning immunity was a contributing factor among the vaccine failures. Close contact with cases of measles in the high school, source or provider of vaccine, sharing common activities or classes with cases, and verification of the vaccination history were not significant risk factors in the outbreak. The outbreak subsided spontaneously after four generations of illness in the school and demonstrates that when measles is introduced in a highly vaccinated population, vaccine failures may play some role in transmission but that such transmission is not usually sustained. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=3826461&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Oguz F, et al. (1995) Analysis of measles cases in a university pediatric hospital during 1988 and 1993 outbreaks. Turk J Pediatr. 1995 Apr-Jun;37(2):83-92. PMID: 7597773; UI: 95320940. In Turkey, a mass measles immunization campaign was initiated in 1985, and the decision was made to administer the first of the measles vaccinations at nine months of age instead of 12-15 months. Following the campaign there was a decrease in the number of measles cases seen in the Outpatient Department of Istanbul University Children’s Hospital in 1986 and 1987; however, after 1987 an increase was observed in measles cases, which continued until 1993. In order to investigate the current measles epidemics, we reevaluated the measles cases seen in our Outpatient Department from 1986 to 1993. We also investigated the vaccination status and the hospitalization and mortality rates of measles cases in the epidemics of 1988 and 1993. Since 1988 (except 1989) a significant increase (412-1375 percent) has been observed in measles cases, and between 1986 and 1993 more than half of all measles cases were in children older than four years of age. In 1988 and 1993 we found that most vaccinated measles cases were also in this age group, but the rate of complications and hospitalization among the vaccinated cases was lower compared to those who were not vaccinated. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=7597773&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Paunio M (1998) , Peltola H, Valle M, Davidkin I, Virtanen M, Heinonen OP. Am J Epidemiol 1998 Dec 1;148(11):1103-10 Explosive school-based measles outbreak: intense exposure may have resulted in high risk, even among revaccinees. Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. Even high levels of measles vaccination coverage have not always prevented outbreaks of measles spread by airborne transmission. It has been suggested that a large inoculum might increase vaccine failure risk. Airbome transmission might occasionally entail a large measles inoculum. The epidemiologic relevance of measles among properly vaccinated persons (i.e., those vaccinated after 15 months of age and with live attenuated virus) is increased when they become contagious. The authors studied inoculum intensities as measured by proxy variables and the contagiousness of properly vaccinated persons who contracted measles among 51 measles patients infected in one school, at home, or elsewhere, utilizing preexisting records of measles cases and 214 healthy controls from an explosive school outbreak that occurred in a rural Finnish municipality in 1989. One “super-spreader” infected 22 others in one day, including eight once-vaccinated students and one twice-vaccinated student, probably during an assembly of 144 students in a poorly ventilated hallway with no sunlight. Those infected later athome had high measles risk, even if they were revaccinees. When siblings shared a bedroom with a measles case, a 78 percent risk (seven out of nine children) was observed among vaccinees. Vaccinees had approximately 2 days’ shorter incubation timethan unvaccinated persons. Vaccinated and unvaccinated students were equally able to infect their siblings. Total protectionagainst measles might not be achievable, even among revaccinees, when children are confronted with intense exposure to measles virus. Rawls WE, et al. (1975) Analysis of a measles epidemic; possible role of vaccine failures. Can Med Assoc J. 1975 Nov 22;113(10):941-4. PMID: 1192310; UI: 76063956. A measles epidemic occurred in the Greensville (Ont.) Unit schools during January and February 1975. There were 47 cases of measles in 403 students: 26 (55%) of the children had a history of being vaccinated and 18 (38%) had not been vaccinated. Among children known to have been vaccinated at less than 1 year of age 7 of 13 contracted measles, while among the 48 children who had not been vaccinated 18 contracted measles. The attack rate among vaccinees increased with increasing time since vaccination. The observations of this study as well as those of similar studies suggest that vaccine failures contributed to the genesis of the epidemic. It is recommended that all children initially vaccinated at less than 1 year of age should be revaccinated with live attenuated measles virus vaccine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1192310&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Shasby DM, et al. (1977) Epidemic measles in a highly vaccinated population. N Engl J Med. 1977 Mar 17;296(11):585-9. PMID: 65732; UI: 77123672. During November, 1975, to May, 1976, measles occurred at a rate of 20.3 cases per 1000 in a purported immunized population, of whom historical and serologic survey revealed that 9 per cent had no history of either measles illness or vaccination and 18 per cent did not have detectable measles antibody. Antibody was detectable in 92 per cent of those vaccinated at greater than or equal to 13 months, 80 per cent at 12 months and 67 per cent of those vaccinated when less than one year old (P less than 0.001), but no significant differences existed with increasing years since vaccination (P greater than 0.1). A second vaccination increased detectable antibody prevalence only in those originally vaccinated when less than nine months old (42 to 80 per cent, P less than 0.02). During a measles outbreak, more cases occurred in those receiving vaccine when less than 12 months old than in those vaccinated at greater than or equal to 12 months (37 per cent vs. 9 per cent, P less than 0.001). A second vaccination protected those originally vaccinated at less than 12 months (35 per cent ill without a second vaccination vs. 2 per cent with, P less than 0.001). Thus, a single measles vaccination of children less than 12 months old does not protect; a second vaccination will protect this group. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=65732&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Sutcliffe PA, et al. (1996) Outbreak of measles in a highly vaccinated secondary school population. CMAJ. 1996 Nov 15;155(10):1407-13. PMID: 8943928; UI: 97099351. OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with measles vaccine effectiveness and the effect of two doses of vaccine on measles susceptibility during an outbreak. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A secondary school in the City of Toronto. SUBJECTS: The entire school population (1135 students 14 to 21 years of age). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of measles during an outbreak associated with age at first measles vaccination, length of time since vaccination, vaccination before 1980 and whether date of vaccination was estimated; vaccine efficacy of one dose versus two doses. RESULTS: Eighty-seven laboratory-confirmed or clinically confirmed cases of measles were identified (for an attack rate of 7.7%). The measles vaccination rate was 94.2%, and 10% of the students had received two doses of measles vaccine before the outbreak. Among those who had received only one dose of vaccine, vaccination at less than 15 months of age was associated with vaccine failure (relative risk 3.62, 95% confidence interval 2.32 to 5.66). There was no increased risk of vaccine failure associated with length of time since vaccination once the relative risk was adjusted for age at vaccination in a stratified analysis. Vaccination before 1980 and an estimated date of vaccination were not associated with increased risk of vaccine failure. Administration of a second dose of vaccine during the outbreak was not protective. Two doses of vaccine given before the outbreak conferred significant protection, and the relative risk of failure after one dose versus two doses was 5.0 (95% confidence interval 1.25 to 20.15). Of the 87 cases, 76 (87%) could have been prevented had all the students received two doses of measles vaccine before the outbreak, with the first at 12 months of age or later. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed primary measles vaccination (at 15 months of age or later) significantly reduced measles risk at later ages. However, revising the timing of the current 12-month dose would leave children vulnerable during a period in which there is increased risk of complications. The findings support a population-based two-dose measles vaccination strategy for optimal measles control and eventual disease elimination. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=8943928&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Slater PE, et al. (1992-3) The 1991 measles epidemic in Israel. Public Health Rev. 1992-93;20(1-2):41-51. PMID: 1305976; UI: 93303282. INTRODUCTION AND METHODS. Prior to the institution of universal childhood vaccination against measles in Israel in 1967, large outbreaks occurred in epidemic cycles at intervals of 2-4 years. The mean annual incidence in the pre-vaccination period, 1950-66, was 470/100,000 per year. With the institution of routine measles vaccination, incidence rates fell, and since 1970 measles incidence has averaged less than one-tenth the pre-vaccination incidence rate, although epidemics occurred in 1975, 1982, 1984-85, and 1991. In this report, based upon cases of measles reported to and investigated by the Ministry of Health, we present an analysis of the 1991 measles epidemic, the measures taken to contain it, and an overview of the prospects for measles control in Israel in the future. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS. The 1991 measles epidemic, 1036 reported cases (incidence: 20.0/100,000), began in the south of the country among underimmunized Beduin children and spread to the Jewish population in the south and then to the rest of the country. The highest incidence was in children aged 12-23 months, followed by children less than 12 months of age and children aged 2-4 years. In the main, cases occurred in persons never immunized in the past, but in 37% of cases vaccine failure seems to have occurred. Control measures included mass vaccination of children in the south and lowering the age for routine measles vaccination nationwide to 12 months. Despite very substantial gains towards measles control in Israel, elimination of the disease is not a realistic goal, mainly because the transmission potential of the disease is too high and vaccine coverage and efficacy are not high enough. Trends in measles incidence over the last four decades allow a cautious optimism that measles containment can be achieved. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1305976&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Srirajalingam M, et al (1998). Estimation of measles vaccination coverage and longer-term vaccine efficacy in a Queensland State High School during the 1993-94 measles epidemic. Aust N Z J Public Health. 1998 Dec;22(7):792-5. PMID: 9889445; UI: 99106119. The parents of 470 students randomly selected from 1321 students attending a state high school were surveyed during the 1993-94 measles epidemic, by means of a take-home questionnaire. The response rate was 87%. Thirty stated that their child had measles during this epidemic; nine of these 30 gave a history of previous vaccination. Overall, 312 of the 470 (76%) stated that their child had been vaccinated, but only 34% indicated that they had vaccination records. There were no measles cases during this epidemic in the group with records. Those not vaccinated were at 10 times increased risk of contracting measles compared to those who had been vaccinated with or without records. Vaccine efficacy estimated in general a decade after vaccination based on parental recall of vaccination status regardless of whether they had vaccination records or not was 91% (95% CI 80%-96%). This calculation excluded 123 who claimed to have had measles prior to 1993 and 30 uncertain of their vaccination status. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=9889445&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Shelton JD, et al. (1978) Measles vaccine efficacy: influence of age at vaccination vs. duration of time since vaccination. Pediatrics. 1978 Dec;62(6):961-4. PMID: 733424; UI: 79095275. To evaluate the recent decision of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice to increase the recommended age for initial measles vaccination from 12 to 15 months, we carried out a case control study of vaccine failure in a recent measles epidemic. Compared to children vaccinated at ages 15 months or older, we found an increased risk of vaccine failure among those vaccinated at 12 to 14 months (relative risk = 19.2, 95% confidence interval = 4.6 to 80.1). In order to sort out the influence of age at vaccination from elapsed time since vaccination, we subjected the data to discriminant analysis. Age at vaccination subsumed all of the effect of duration of time since vaccination. Thus, we find no evidence of waning immunity over time. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=733424&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Sekla L, et al. (1988) An evaluation of measles serodiagnosis during an outbreak in a vaccinated community. Clin Invest Med. 1988 Aug;11(4):304-9. PMID: 3168353; UI: 89003844. During an epidemic of measles in a vaccinated community, five serodiagnostic tests were performed on 67 persons on whom clinical and epidemiological data were available. The test found most suitable for a rapid diagnosis of measles infection was an Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies. Only one false negative IgM was recorded. In a group of 45 persons who fulfilled the clinical definition of measles, specific IgM antibodies were detected in the acute phase serum of only 30 (66.6%), of whom 17 were vaccinated. When the convalescent sera were tested, specific IgM antibodies were detected in 25 of the 28 (89.2%) vaccinated, and in 17 of the 17 (100%) non vaccinated clinical cases. A convalescent blood should be tested in persons with a rash illness and no IgM antibodies in the acute phase serum. There were individual variations in the time of appearance of IgM. On the day of onset of rash, IgM antibodies were detected in 7 of the 12 (58.3%). A history of prior vaccination is not always associated with immunity nor with the presence of specific antibodies. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=3168353&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Sanchez Y, et al. (1977) [What is wrong with the measles vaccine in Mexico? Study of an epidemic outbrake of measles]. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 1977 Mar-Apr;34(2):291-7. Spanish. PMID: 843401; UI: 77134326. The study included 205 children with measles seen after an epidemic outbreak in Distrito Federal during the first six months of 1976. 65.8% of the cases had not been given specific immunization and out of the 70 vaccinated cases (34.2%), one half of them were under one year old and were not given re-enforcement afterwards. The clinical picture suffered no changes in vaccinated children, 40% of infants showed initial exanthema on chest and abdomen with centrifugal distribution and in 41.5% of them, diarrhea appeared during the prodromal period. The most outstanding elements of this epidemic outbreak were the high number of sensible cases and the high percentage of children vaccinated before the age of one year and who were not later given re-vaccination. Indequate handling of the vaccine or combination of vaccine withe gammaglobulin used in 1969 and 1970, are also mentioned as a possibility to explain failures of the vaccine in ths group of well vaccinated children. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=843401&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Serra I, et al. (1990) [Measles in Chile]. Rev Med Chil. 1990 Feb;118(2):214-24. Spanish. PMID: 2152725; UI: 93303425. Outbreaks of measles have occurred in Chile in 1979, 1985 and 1988. A greater proportion of cases affected babies under 1 year of age and patients above age 14. However, the increase in mortality was small. Low quality of the vaccine and deficiencies in the vaccination programs may be implicated in these epidemics. Use of high quality vaccines, vaccination programs based on serological information and better epidemiologic surveillance are proposed to prevent new outbreaks of the disease http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=2152725&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Tayil SE, et al. (1998) Sero-epidemiological study of measles after 15 years of compulsory vaccination in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J. 1998 Dec;4(3):437-47. [MEDLINE record in process] PMID: 10415952; UI: 99344441. Cases of measles among 165 vaccinated and unvaccinated children were studied and the level of measles antibody in 230 previously vaccinated children was determined. Associations between demographic factors and immunological response to vaccination were also investigated. Approximately 80% of the children with measles had been vaccinated; their cases had significantly lower rates of complication. Rural areas accounted for significantly higher numbers of unvaccinated cases. Vaccination status did not correspond to place of exposure, duration of prodrome or accuracy of preliminary diagnosis. The seropositivity rate among vaccinated children was 86.1% with no significant variation with age. We recommend a second dose of measles vaccine and maintaining high vaccine coverage. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=10415952&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Tohani VK, et al. (1992) Vaccine efficacy in a measles immunisation programme. Bur. 1992 Apr 24;2(5):R59-60. PMID: 1285105; UI: 94035478. During a measles outbreak in Northern Ireland (between October 1988 and March 1989) it was noted that a proportion of cases had occurred in children who had previously been vaccinated against measles. A study was, therefore, set up to provide a rapid estimate of vaccine efficacy. Vaccine efficacy was calculated to be 94% (95% confidence limits, 91% to 96%). Investigation of the computerised records at 31 December 1991 revealed that 94% of children in the study cohort had received measles vaccine. As vaccination coverage increases, a higher proportion of cases of measles will, inevitably, have a history of vaccination. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=1285105&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b Trier H, et al. [Duration of immunity and occurrence of secondary vaccine failure following vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella]. Ugeskr Laeger. 1992 Jul 13;154(29):2008-13. Review. Danish. PMID: 1509566; UI: 92376936. van Eijndhoven MJ, et al. (1994) [A measles epidemic in an adequately vaccinated middle school population]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1994 Nov 26;138(48):2396-400. Dutch. PMID: 7990987; UI: 95082975. OBJECTIVE. To assess the extent of a measles epidemic in a secondary school. DESIGN. Retrospective and questionnaire investigation. SETTING. Secondary school, Bilthoven. METHOD. Questionnaire followed by laboratory testing for measles and other infectious diseases with exanthema. RESULTS. The response rate was 99% (935/949 pupils, aged 12-21 years, vaccination rate 92%). Seventy-seven students underwent laboratory investigations. Measles virus was isolated in 2 suspected patients. Thirty-three of 37 patients with clinical or laboratory criteria of measles had been vaccinated. Complications of measles were not detected. Infection was also detected in patients with relatively few or atypical symptoms. The protective efficacy of measles vaccine could be determined because the attack rate of the school population was less than 5%. CONCLUSION. Primary failure of the measles vaccine might be the cause of the minor epidemic but the results do not cast doubt on the efficacy of the current measles vaccination programme. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=7990987&form=6&db=m&Dopt=b MMWR Measles — Hawaii Vol 33, No 50;702 12/21/1984 Of the 106 cases, 48 (45%) were considered preventable. Thirty-two of these patients had no record of measles vaccination or prior physician-diagnosed natural disease, and 16 had been vaccinated at under 12 months of age. Thirty-six of the 58 nonpreventable cases (62%) occurred among children 15 months of age or younger, most of whom were too young for routine vaccination. Eighteen (31%) of the nonpreventable cases had been immunized appropriately. The remaining four measles patients were 28 years of age or older–too old for routine vaccination. Of the 45 school-aged patients, 16 (35%) were vaccinated at 12 months of age or under; 12 (27%) were unvaccinated. Thus, non-immune schoolchildren accounted for 58% (28/48) of all preventable measles cases. http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000455.htm MMWR Measles in an Immunized School-Aged Population — New Mexico Vol 34, No 04;052 02/01/1985. The school system reported that 98% of students were vaccinated against measles before the outbreak began.. http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000476.htm MMWR Measles Outbreak among Vaccinated High School Students — Illinois Vol 33, No 24;349 06/22/1984 The outbreak involved 16 high school students, all of whom had histories of measles vaccination after 15 months of age documented in their school health records http://www.cdc.gov/epo/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00000359.htm Hess U. [Mumps vaccines: vaccination failures from an immunological viewpoint]. Soz Praventivmed. 1995;40(2):110-5. German. PMID: 7747520; UI: 95266359. Strehle A; (1997) Eggenberger K; Steiner CA; Matter L; Germann D. Mumps epidemic in vaccinated children in West Switzerland. Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 1997 Jun, 127:26, 1124-33 Since 1991, 6 years after the recommendation of universal childhood vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR triple vaccine), Switzerland is confronted with a large number of mumps cases affecting both vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Up to 80% of the children suffering from mumps between 1991 and 1995 had previously been vaccinated, the majority with the Rubini vaccine strain. K T Goh. Lancet Volume 354, Number 9187 16 October 1999. Resurgence of mumps in Singapore caused by the Rubini mumps virus vaccine strain The measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine containing the highly attenuated Rubini mumps virus strain conferred no protection against acute parotitis in vaccinated children in Singapore. Its introduction into the national childhood immunisation programme has resulted in a reduction in the seroprevalence of mumps to prevaccination levels. Vaccination of 12-month-old children against mumps with the trivalent measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced into the national childhood immunisation programme in Singapore in January, 1990. The vaccination coverage for children younger than 2 years ranged from 84�4% in 1990 to 92% in 1998. A “catch-up” measles vaccination programme for children aged 12-18 years used the MMR vaccine from July to November, 1997, to curb the resurgence of measles, and a second dose of MMR vaccine was routinely given to all primary school leavers (11 years) from January, 1998. Since January, 1990, three mumps-virus vaccine strains have been used in the MMR vaccine. These are the Urabe strain, the Jeryl-Lynn strain, and the Rubini strain. The Urabe strain was withdrawn in 1992 after an association with increased risk of aseptic meningitis was reported in other countries.1 The Urabe strain was substituted by the Rubini strain during 1993-95. Disease surveillance showed that although the incidence of measles and rubella has declined, that of mumps has increased, from 674 cases in 1997 to 1183 cases in 1998, and to 2586 cases for the first 7 months of 1999. At the current rate of increase, the incidence is likely to reach 200 per 100 000 population by the end of the year. The increase in the incidence of mumps was mainly seen in children younger than 15 years, which constituted 61% of the cases. Of 592 cases investigated for vaccination history during the last 4 months of 1998, 258 (43, 6%) had documented evidence of immunisation with the MMR vaccine. All the vaccinated cases received one dose–the majority (85, 3%) at government polyclinics. Of 195 cases who were known to have received mumps-virus vaccine strains, 144 (73, 8%) were vaccinated with the Rubini strain, 42 (21, 5%) with the Jeryl-Lynn strain, and nine (4, 6%) with the Urabe strain. About three-quarters of the cases received their MMR vaccine 1-4 years before onset of illness. Epidemiological investigations pointed to primary vaccine failure as the most likely cause for the resurgence of mumps. The short interval between vaccination and onset of illness indicated that secondary vaccine failure due to waning immunity is unlikely. Misdiagnosis by physicians could not have contributed to the sharp increase, since the clinical signs and symptoms of mumps are quite typical, and acute parotitis caused by other infections is uncommon. To calculate the vaccine efficacy of the Rubini strain vaccine, epidemiological investigations were carried out in five child-care centres in which mumps outbreaks had occurred. Of 2418 children, 2107 had documented evidence of mumps vaccination, and 197 had no documented evidence. The vaccination status of 114 children was unknown. There were 184 cases of mumps in these five child-care centres; 166 in the vaccinated group and 24 in the unvaccinated group. The attack rate was 166 of 2107 (7, 9%) in the vaccinated group, and 18 of 197 (9, 1%) in the unvaccinated group. Of those with documented evidence of vaccination, 140 of 1546 children vaccinated with the Rubini strain vaccine developed mumps, giving an attack rate of 9, 1%. Thus the Rubini strain vaccine conferred no protection. Further confirmation of the low efficacy of the Rubini strain was obtained from the results of periodic national seroepidemiological surveys on vaccine-preventable diseases. Serum samples were tested by ELISA for mumps virus IgG antibody with a commercial test kit (Mumps ELISA II, BioWhittaker, USA) at the Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital. The seroprevalence of mumps in children less than 5 years of age was 22% in 1989, before the introduction of the MMR vaccine. It increased to 72, 4% in 1993 after mumps vaccination (with the Urabe strain and Jeryl-Lynn strain) was introduced. In 1998, the seroprevalence of mumps again fell to 25, 6%. In view of the low protection conferred by the Rubini strain vaccine, the Ministry of Health deregistered the MMR vaccine containing this particular strain in May 1999. The low clinical protection provided by the highly attenuated Rubini strain was first noted in Switzerland, Italy, and Portugal.2-4 Sharp increases in mumps incidence in the 1990s prompted the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health to recommend the use of MMR vaccines containing other mumps virus strains.2 Countries currently using the Rubini strain should monitor the incidence of mumps closely. If the incidence has not declined despite high immunisation coverage, the possibility of primary vaccine failure should be investigated. 1 Furesz J, Contreras G. Vaccine-related mumps meningitis–Canada. Can Dis Wkly Rep 1990; 16: 253-54. 2 Galazka AM, Robertson SE, Kraigher A. Mumps and mumps vaccine: a global review. Bull World Health Organ 1999; 77: 3-14. 3 Toscani L, Batou M, Bouvier P, Schlanepfer A. Comparison of the efficacy of various strains of mumps vaccine: a school survey. Soz Praventivmed 1996; 41: 341-47. 4 Germann D, Strohle A, Eggenberger K, Steiner CA, Matter I. An outbreak of mumps in a population partially vaccinated with the Rubini strain. Scand J Infect Dis 1996; 28: 235-38. Institute of Environmental Epidemiology, Ministry of the Environment, Environment Building 40, Singapore 228231, Singapore (K T Goh MD) (e-mail: goh_kee_tai@env.gov.sg) Rubella “The incidence of rubella virus infections in Switzerland after the introduction of the MMR mass vaccination programme” (European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 11, no. 3, June 1995, pp. 305-10): In evaluating the impact of the MMR mass vaccination program begun in Switzerland in 1985, “we conclude that MMR mass vaccination has not interrupted the circulation of rubella virus in Switzerland, and that improvements in the implementation and surveillance of the MMR vaccinationcampaign are necessary in order to avoid [the] untoward effects of it.”

Vaccine Failure Library: Flu Shots Do Not Provide Protection for the Elderly

Wednesday, September 3rd, 2008

Flu shots are a huge business and a huge threat. 94% of all flu shots avaialble for both children and adults contain mercury. The rest contain “trace amounts” of mercury which are still large enough to be toxic. All the rest of the components are toxic as well, although some are uncharacterized (for example, random bits of stray embryonic tissues, FDA acknowledged “steal viruses”, leukemia or other cancer-causing particles and viruses, etc.)
Despite the increasing number of situations and States in which flu vaccines are mandated (for all children 6 months and older in New Jersey, for example, each and every year after two vaccinations in the child’s first year of life), there is no convincing evidence to show that these shots are safe or effective.
In fact, the CDC and WHO (World Health Organization) literally guess sometime in the Spring what viruses will be circulating to cause a flu epidemic the next fall and winter. They guess wrong a great many times. Vaccines, even if they were effective, would provide no coverage or protection against a virus other than the one that they are made to deal with.
Live virus vaccines may well be dangerous to those who are vaccinated AND to those with whom they come in contact who are immunocompromised through medications like chemotherapy or steroids, are nursing mothers and babies, have a wide variety of diseases or develop the disease for which they have been vaccinated (a not uncommon occurance).
Despite the fact that flu deaths are wildly inflated in the US (since all pneumonia deaths are “counted” as flu deaths, whether they are or not), most cases of flu are similar to most cases of flu vaccination response – self limited fevers, muscle aches, headaches, malaise and weakness. In addition, getting the flu builds immunity to that species of virus without exposure to some of the most toxic chemicals and materials known once they are injected.
The article below calls into question the practice of vaccinating the elderly to protect them against flu. The same serious questions should be asked about vaccinating anyone else for flu.

Yours in health and freedom,
Dr. Rima
Rima E. Laibow, MD
Medical Director
Natural Solutions Foundation

Flu Shot Does Not Lower Mortality
By Marsha Quinn
(Best Syndication News) Canadian researchers say that the mortality rate among the elderly patients who receive the flu shot is no different than the rate of those who do not. Previous research suggested a benefit to receiving the influenza vaccine, but this new study suggests otherwise. They speculate that the previous research was skewed because of a “health user benefit” or a “frailty bias”.
The study involved about 700 matched elderly participants, of which about half received the vaccine and the other half did not. They accounted for many variables that were not considered in previous studies. “If present at all, (the benefit) was very small and statistically non-significant and may simply be a healthy-user artifact that they were unable to identify,” they reported.

Why Don’t Flu Shots Work?
It is possible that those who received the vaccine in previous studies were more concerned about their health. This means those individuals ate healthy and exercised regularly.
They believe that the “healthy-user effect” was responsible for the mortality benefit associated with influenza vaccination seen in observational studies. There should also be a significant mortality benefit present during the “off-season”, according to Dr. Dean T. Eurich,Ph.D. clinical epidemiologist and assistant professor at the School of Public Health at the University of Alberta.
“While such a reduction in all-cause mortality would have been impressive, these mortality benefits are likely implausible. Previous studies were likely measuring a benefit not directly attributable to the vaccine itself, but something specific to the individuals who were vaccinated-a healthy-user benefit or frailty bias,” said Eurich.

What is the Influenza Vaccine Made Of?
Flu shots are composed of dead viruses. [They may be so-called attenuated live viruses like “Flu Mist” – REL] They are not approved for children less than 6 years of age. They are approved from people with chronic medical conditions, according to the CDC. The flu vaccines prompt the formation of antibodies that protect the patient from the virus.

New Nasal Spray Vaccine
The new nasal-spray flu vaccine (LAIV for “live attenuated influenza vaccine” or FluMist® LAIV (FluMist®) is made up of live but weakened viruses. They do not cause the flu, according to the CDC, and are approved for “healthy” people from 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant.

The Study Results
They analyzed the records of 704 patients 65 years of age and older who were admitted to the hospital for community-acquired pneumonia during non-flu season. Of those patients, 12 percent died with a medium length of stay of 8 days. They matched the vaccinated patients with the non-vaccinated ones with similar demographics, medical conditions, functional status, smoking status and current prescription medications.
Consistent with previous studies, patients who were vaccinated were about half as likely to die as unvaccinated patients. “Controlling for those variables reduced the relative risk of death to a statistically non-significant 19 percent.”
“Over the last two decades in the United Sates, even while vaccination rates among the elderly have increased from 15 to 65 percent, there has been no commensurate decrease in hospital admissions or all-cause mortality,” Eurich said. “Further, only about 10 percent of winter-time deaths in the United States are attributable to influenza, thus to suggest that the vaccine can reduce 50 percent of deaths from all causes is implausible in our opinion.”
These results appeared in the September issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, a publication of the American Thoracic Society.


Vaccine Failure Library: More Parents Question Vaccination

Wednesday, September 3rd, 2008

Vaccines have failed to gain universal trust because of their connection with illness and serious side effects including death and autism. Consumer confidence has been strongly shaken by coverups and denials, increased vaccinations and decreased government accountability.
The Vaccine Failure Library may, like all Natural Solutions Foundation materials, be used for non-profit purposes as long as full attribution is provided.
Yours in health and freedom,
Dr. Rima
Rima E. Laibow, MD
Medical Director
Natural Solutions Foundation

More Parents Question Vaccination
Vaccine poll highlights

In a Scripps Howard Survey conducted by the Scripps Survey Research Center of Ohio University via telephone survey during the period from September 24 to October 11, 2007, 811 adults were asked questions about vaccinations. Here are their answers as reported by Thomas Hargrove of the Scripps News Service

Respondents were asked Questions in Bold Face. Their answers follow each question.
Here are a few questions about vaccinations that children get to protect them from diseases like polio, mumps and measles. Most states require kids to receive up to 10 different vaccinations by the time they are five years old. Some parents and researchers say vaccines have side effects that may lead to autism, asthma, diabetes, attention deficit disorder and other medical problems. Have you heard about these concerns?
Yes, have heard …………… 66
No, have not heard ………… 33
Don’t Know/Other Response …… 1

Most U.S. health officials urge that children be vaccinated to protect them and to prevent the spread of disease. More than 1 million children die of measles outside the U.S. every year. Generally speaking, do you think the benefits of immunizations outweigh the risks or do you have questions about the risks of immunization?
Benefits outweigh risks ……. 71
Have Questions about risks …. 19
Don’t Know/Other Response ….. 10

Most states allow children to be exempt from vaccinations if their parents object for religious reasons. Many states also allow exemptions if parents are philosophically opposed to the vaccinations. Should parents be allowed to exempt their children for philosophical reasons?
Yes ……………………… 56
No ………………………. 33
Don’t Know/Other Response ….. 11

There are still outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases like measles and mumps in this country. Unvaccinated children are eight times more likely to get measles than those who’ve gotten the full series of shots. About 77 percent of children have received all recommended shots by the time they are three years old. Is this a very serious public health concern, or not.

Very Serious Concern ………. 66
Not Very Serious Concern …… 26
Don’t Know/Other Response …… 8

Would you recommend that all children in your family get all recommended vaccinations, or would you want your family to ask lots of questions before proceeding with vaccinations?
Get all vaccinations ………. 56
Ask Lots of Questions First … 38
Don’t Know/Other Response …… 6
(Distributed by Scripps Howard News Service, http://www.scrippsnews.com)

Food Irradiation: Not as Bad as It Can Get, But Pretty Close

Wednesday, September 3rd, 2008

Irradiated food is really bad stuff. Of course, it is not radioactive, but it is filled with disease-causing free radicals caused by the process of bombarding it with high energy radiation, the contents of dead organisms killed by the radiation, inactivated, worthless enzymes, and the bits and pieces of what is known in the legal trade as “filth”: insect parts, rat excrement, hairs, dead vermin, etc., which careful handling would eliminate or minimize.

Food that is going to be irradiated, however, does not receive careful handling typically since it will be “sterilized” by the irradiation. If your food is not only irradiated, but genetically modified and stuffed with toxic chemicals, in other words, meets FDA, USDA and Codex standards, now THAT’s as bad as it gets. That’s fully weaponized, “loaded and locked” food. Don’t go near the stuff.

Consumers do not want irradiated food. So the ever corporate-friendly agencies of the government, and of course, Codex Alimentarius, take the crafty step of not telling us whether food is irradiated or not if they can get away without doing so. Once food is processed, it does not have to have the familiar “radura”, the radiation symbol, which the law previously required.

Now that fresh lettuce, spinach and other greens are defined as a “health hazard” by a berserk FDA, they, too, will be irradiated before we can eat them. All of them, unless consumed locally or grown by you or your friends.

What does that tell you? Eat locally. Grow your own food.

Print bumper stickers that say “Grow or Glow” and tell people what that means. Get good at “4 foot square” gardening, or growing on your patio or balcony. Organize window box growing for your community or community gardens. You ARE in control of what goes into your body. If you are not, get yourself organized and get into that position. Meet with your neighbors to make this happen for all of you. You and your neighbors are something else besides neighbors: you are CONSUMERS.

Consumers are very powerful when they take the time and effort to be. Since your food is being weaponized against you and your family (!) GET organized.

Email Kathy Greene, kathy.greene@usa.net, the Community Organization Coordinator of the Natural Solutions Foundation and let us help you get your neighbors motivated and activated. We have an excellent eBook on Community Organizing that we will send you if you ask. Just put “Organizing” in the subject line.

Consumer organizations perform valuable services. Not only can they be watchdogs and whistleblowers, they can provide significant information to other consumers, government officials and agencies, university decision makers and the people who attend and shape policy at national and international meetings. According to our West African sources, in that part of the world, consumers organizations who become upset about an issue can literally bring down a government.

Of course, what that takes is a strong sense of ownership: this is MY body, this is MY environment, this is MY child, this is MY body. And the people living right next store to me, and across town, and across the country care about what happens to me, and to themselves, too.

If companies and governments are lying to me, or poisoning me or corrupting my food, or my field or my child’s body, or keeping deadly secrets of putting me in harm’s way for your own good, we, the Consumers, should, can, will, say “NO!” to what is bad and “YES!” to what is good for us.

Up with consumers and consumerism, I say.

The diametrical opposite to consumerism, of course, is “corporatism”. What is good for corporations, which is generally what governments decide is good for them since so much money is involved, is very often exactly NOT what is good for people, for consumers, for you, for me. And, oh, by the way, it may not be at all good for the environment. In fact, when their decisions and actions are good for the consumer or the environment, that is the cause for press releases and hoopla.
It’s up to us.

The Organic Consumers organization has published a very useful compendium called “WHAT’S WRONG WITH FOOD IRRADIATION, http://www.organicconsumers.org/Irrad/irradfact.cfm. Although food irradiation is presented by government and industry, and, of course, by the ever corporate-friendly FDA and USDA, as benign and helpful, it is neither. Read below and see why irradiation, sometimes misleadingly called “Cold Sterilization” or “Cold Pasturization” is neither.

And then start eating and growing organic!

Check it out and take control of your health by taking control of what you eat!

Yours in health and freedom,
Dr. Rima
Rima E. Laibow, MD
Medical Director
Natural Solutions Foundation

What’s Wrong With Irradiated Food?
Irradiation damages the quality of food.

· Irradiation damages food by breaking up molecules and creating free radicals. The free radicals kill some bacteria, but they also bounce around in the food, damage vitamins and enzymes, and combine with existing chemicals (like pesticides) in the food to form new chemicals, called unique radiolytic products (URPs).
· Some of these URPs are known toxins (benzene, formaldehyde, lipid peroxides) and some are unique to irradiated foods. Scientists have not studied the long-term effect of these new chemicals in our diet. Therefore, we cannot assume they are safe.
· Irradiated foods can lose 5%-80% of many vitamins (A, C, E, K and B complex). The amount of loss depends on the dose of irradiation and the length of storage time.
· Most of the food in the American diet is already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for irradiation: beef, pork, lamb, poultry, wheat, wheat flour, vegetables, fruits, shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, spices, herb teas. (Dairy is already pasteurized). A food industry petition currently before the FDA asks for approval for luncheon meats, salad bar items, sprouts, fresh juices and frozen foods. Another petition before the USDA asks for approval for imported fruits and vegetables.
· Irradiation damages the natural digestive enzymes found in raw foods. This means the body has to work harder to digest them.
· If unlabeled, raw foods that have been irradiated look like fresh foods, but nutritionally they are like cooked foods, with decreased vitamins and enzymes. The FDA allows these foods to be labeled “fresh.”
· Irradiated fats tend to become rancid.
· When high-energy electron beams are used, trace amounts of radioactivity may be created in the food.

Science has not proved that a long-term diet of irradiated foods is safe for human health

· The longest human feeding study was 15 weeks. No one knows the long-term effects of a life-long diet that includes foods which will be frequently irradiated, such as meat, chicken, vegetables, fruits, salads, sprouts and juices.
· There are no studies on the effects of feeding babies or children diets containing irradiated foods, except a very small and controversial study from India that showed health effects.
· Studies on animals fed irradiated foods have shown increased tumors, reproductive failures and kidney damage. Some possible causes are: irradiation-induced vitamin deficiencies, the inactivity of enzymes in the food, DNA damage, and toxic radiolytic products in the food.
· The FDA based its approval of irradiation for poultry on only 5 of 441 animal-feeding studies. Marcia van Gemert, Ph.D., the toxicologist who chaired the FDA committee that approved irradiation, later said, “These studies reviewed in the 1982 literature from the FDA were not adequate by 1982 standards, and are even less accurate by 1993 standards to evaluate the safety of any product, especially a food product such as irradiated food.” The 5 studies are not a good basis for approval of irradiation for humans, because they showed health effects on the animals or were conducted using irradiation at lower energies than those the FDA eventually approved.
· The FDA based its approval of irradiation for fruits and vegetables on a theoretical calculation of the amount of URPs in the diet from one 7.5 oz. serving/day of irradiated food. Considering the different kinds of foods approved for irradiation, this quantity is too small and the calculation is irrelevant.
· Even with current labeling requirements, people cannot avoid eating irradiated food. That means there is no control group, and epidemiologists will never be able to determine if irradiated food has any health effects.
· Science is always changing. The science of today is not the science of tomorrow. The science we have today is not adequate to prove the long-term safety of food irradiation.

Irradiation covers up problems that the meat and poultry industry should solve

· Irradiation covers up the increased fecal contamination that results from speeded up slaughter and decreased federal inspection, both of which allow meat and poultry to be produced more cheaply. Prodded by the industry, the USDA has allowed a transfer of inspection to company inspectors. Where government inspectors remain, they are not allowed to condemn meat and poultry now that they condemned 20 years ago.
· Because of this deregulation (continued under President Clinton, a protégé of Tyson Foods), the meat and poultry industry has recently lost money and suffered bad publicity from food-poisoning lawsuits and expensive product recalls. Irradiation is a “magic bullet” that will enable them to say that the product was “clean” when it left the packing plant. (Irradiation, however, does not sterilize food, and any bacteria that remain can grow to toxic proportions if the food is not properly stored and handled.)
· In 2000, seven meat industry associations submitted a petition to USDA to redefine key regulations relating to contamination. If accepted by USDA, this petition would permit unlimited fecal contamination during production, as long as irradiation was used afterward.

Labeling is necessary to inform people so they can choose to avoid irradiated foods

· Because irradiated foods have not been proven safe for human health in the long term, prominent, conspicuous and truthful labels are necessary for all irradiated foods. Consumers should be able to easily determine if their food has been irradiated. Labels should also be required for irradiated ingredients of compound foods, and for restaurant and institutional foods.
· Because irradiation can deplete vitamins, labels should state the amount of vitamin loss after irradiation, especially for fresh foods that are usually eaten fresh. Consumers have the right to know if they are buying nutritionally impaired foods.
· Current US labels are not sufficient to enable consumers to avoid irradiated food. Foods are labeled only to the first purchaser. Irradiated spices, herb teas and supplement ingredients, foods that are served in restaurants, schools, etc., or receive further processing, do not bear consumer labels. Consumer labels are required only for foods sold whole (like a piece of fruit) or irradiated in the package (like chicken breasts). The text with the declaration of irradiation can be as small as the type face on the ingredient label. The US Department of Agriculture requirements have one difference: irradiated meat or poultry that is part of another food (like a tv dinner) must be disclosed on the label.
· The US Food and Drug Administration is currently rewriting the regulation for minimum labeling, and will release it for public comment by early 2002 [now long past – REL]. They may eliminate all required text labels. If they do retain the labels, Congress has told them to use a “friendly” euphemism instead of “irradiation.” [Hence “cold sterilization” or “cold Pasteurization” and similar inaccurate terms on foods which must be labeled, a small minority of foods which are consumed after irradiation -REL]

Electron-beam irradiation today means nuclear irradiation tomorrow

· The source of the irradiation is not listed on the label.
· The original sponsor of food irradiation in the US was the Department of Energy, which wanted to create a favorable image of nuclear power as well as dispose of radioactive waste. These goals have not changed. Cobalt-60, which is used for irradiation, must be manufactured in a nuclear reactor.
· Many foods cannot be irradiated using electron beams. E-beams only penetrate 1-1.5 inches on each side, and are suitable only for flat, evenly sized foods like patties. Large fruits, foods in boxes, and irregularly shaped foods must be irradiated using x-rays or gamma rays from nuclear materials.
· Countries that lack a cheap and reliable source of electricity for e-beams use nuclear materials. Opening U.S. markets to irradiated food encourages the spread of nuclear irradiation worldwide.

[Codex Alimentarius supports the universal irradiation of all foods moving through international trade except those which have been fully processed to an end product like roasted coffee. The USDA requires all fruits and vegetables (with very few limited exceptions) to be irradiated before they are imported into the United States. -REL]

Irradiation using radioactive materials is an environmental hazard

· The more nuclear irradiators, the more likelihood of a serious accident in transport, operation or disposal of the nuclear materials.
· Food irradiation facilities have already contaminated the environment. For example, in the state of Georgia in 1988, radioactive water escaped from an irradiation facility. The taxpayers were stuck with $47 million in cleanup costs. Radioactivity was tracked into cars and homes. In Hawaii in 1967 and New Jersey in 1982, radioactive water was flushed into the public sewer system.
· Numerous worker exposures have occurred in food irradiation facilities worldwide.

Irradiation doesn’t provide clean food

· Because irradiation doesn’t kill all the bacteria in a food, the ones that survive are by definition radiation-resistant. These bacteria will multiply and eventually work their way back to the ‘animal factories’. Soon thereafter, the bacteria that contaminate the meat will no longer be killed by currently approved doses of irradiation. The technology will no longer be usable, while stronger bacteria contaminate our food supply.
· People may become more careless about sanitation if irradiation is widely used. Irradiation doesn’t kill all the bacteria in a food. In a few hours at room temperature, the bacteria remaining in meat or poultry after irradiation can multiply to the level existing before irradiation.
· Some bacteria, like the one that causes botulism, as well as viruses and prions (which are believed to cause Mad Cow Disease) are not killed by current doses of irradiation.
· Irradiation encourages food producers to cut corners on sanitation, because they can ‘clean up’ the food just before it is shipped.

Irradiation does nothing to change the way food is grown and produced

· Irradiated foods can have longer shelf lives than nonirradiated foods, which means they can be shipped further while appearing ‘fresh.’ Food grown by giant farms far away may last longer than non-irradiated, locally grown food, even if it is inferior in nutrition and taste. Thus, irradiation encourages centralization and hurts small farmers.
· The use of pesticides, antibiotics, hormones and other agri-chemicals, as well as pollution and energy use, are not affected. Irradiation is applied by the packer after harvest or slaughter.
· Some so-called Free-market economists say irradiation is ‘efficient': it provides the cheapest possible food for the least possible risk. But these economists are not concerned about the impaired nutritional quality of the food. They are not considering the environmental effects of large-scale corporate farming, the social costs of centralization of agriculture and loss of family farms, the replacement of unionized, impartial government inspectors with company inspectors , the potential long-term damage to human health, and the possibility of irradiation-resistant super-bacteria. All of these developments should be (but are not) considered when regulators and public health officials evaluate the benefits of food irradiation.

In a truly free market, consumers would have access to truthful and not misleading information about all their food choices and could decide for themselves what risks to take. Honest companies would be free to truthfully tell that their products are organic, non-GMO, non-toxic, non-irradiated. Free people are free to choose risks… or to reject them. Slaves, of course, have to take whatever sh-t is dolled out to them.

Which are you?

Panic, not Bird Flu, is the Pandemic. Bird Flu Panic Makes Officials Clinically Insane.

Wednesday, September 3rd, 2008

Last week a health official in Goma, Nigeria, stated that Bird Flu, which has killed not one person in Goma, Nigeria or Africa, is “Deadlier than AIDS”. This week, in the Philippines, bird trappers are urged to stop their practice because of Bird Flu. The Philippines, like Nigeria and every other country in Africa, has never had a single case of human Bird Flu.

Don’t get me wrong: I think trapping creatures in the wild is a bad practice and destroying nests and killing birds or selling them for industrial purposes (especially to satisfy the atavistic urge to cage a wild bird for your own amusement) are practices that should be discouraged. But not because of the instigated insanity of public health or other officials given false and misleading information and lured into absurd behavior.

And lest anyone think that this clinical insanity is localized to developing nations, recall that every State in the US, and a great many cities and towns, are “practicing” for the “inevitable” pandemic promised to them by the members of “Official dumb” who are whipping up the fervor and spreading it.

How much money that could be better used for real health and prevention services is being wasted on these endless “exercises” at every level? Nurses are being told that their job is to aid the dying flu victims. Hospitals are being reorganized to house special feverish patients in outpatient wards. UK hospital workers are demanding special hazard suits to work in. The fervor mounts. Not the fever. There is none. That is because there are no cases of Avian Flu.

Meanwhile, the “softening up” of rational thinking, the Psy Ops, continues apace with nonsense like this so frequent that it becomes “normal”. It is not, in my opinion, anything like “normal”. It is a stimulated insanity, the best protection against which is a firm hold on rational thinking.

Yours in health and freedom,
Dr. Rima
Rima E. Laibow, MD
Medical Director
Natural Solutions Foundation

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